Design Criteria for Healthy Building
General Design Principles
The choice of site determinates the building's climate access to infrasturcture, building scale (urban, rural, etc.), future prospects, and sense of place. It's function (which should include flexibility) helps define it's form. The form gives the building it's sense of place and sense of space. It includes flexible space layouts and contrast spaces (work, recreation). Materials can include a tunable, integrated facade that will promote a harmony the senses. Materials should be selected to have low-embodied energy and promote energy efficiency.

Design criteria were divided into four main categories, which are 1. Site, spaces, building structures and materials; 2. Construction, commissioning and operations; 3. Protection against moisture and mold; and 4. Heating, ventilating and air conditioning. Results by categories are the following:

1. Site, spaces, buildings structures and materials
- Choose a warm, sunny and wind-sheltered building site
- If possible, choose a dry building site i.e. one where water penetrates the soil well
- Good location and traffic communication
- The vicinity of busy traffic routes and basic industry set special demands on design
- Prefer individual offices to open-plan offices
- Room height should allow the head to be clear of stagnant air
- Room space per person should be sufficient to avoid overcrowding and permit privacy
- Locate workstation a short distance from windows/ good views/ good daylight
- Rooms and equipment which pollute indoor air should be separated from other rooms
- Smoking inside building should be prohitbited or restricted to separate rooms
- Underground work places should be avoided
- Avoid high internal heat load
- Open suspended ceilings should be avoided
- Shelter rooms against high external heat load
- Prefer high effective thermal mass to low effective thermal mass
- Use low emitting building and finishing materials (material labeling)
- Avoid use of materials inside building or inside structures which are for outside use unless they have been tested for indoor use
- Avoid use of fitted carpets and other fleecy materials
- Avoid use of uncoated ceiling and wall boards made from mineral wool
- Prefer operable windows to sealed windows
- In radon areas or areas with contaminating soil, special demands are set for base floor design and construction

2. Construction, Commissioning and Operation
- Training of consultants, contractors and facility managers on principles of good IAQ is necessity but should be done carefully
- Training of building labour on principles of healthy construction
- Quality assurance of work and installations during construction phase
- Selection process of healthy materials during design and construction process
- Protect materials and products against water, dirt and dust during construction at construction site
- Avoid overlaying of wet concrete structures with impervious materials
- Avoid changes in building function without analysis of effects of changes on occupants. This includes major changes in occupant density
- Central vacuum cleaning system is recommended
- Avoid designs that cannot be maintained after construction
- Schedule post-occupancy evaluation of occupants after one year of occupancy
- Do a pre-occupancy evaluation of occupied building before occupants move into new building
PV Vacuum Engineering Pte Ltd
21 Marsiling, Industrial Estate Road 9, Singapore 739175
Tel : 6755 6169 Fax : 6755 2801